Posting Date: February 28, 2002
Table of Contents




Table of Contents

Inserting Graphics into an AppleWorks Word Processing Document
Inserting an In-line Graphic
Inserting a Floating Graphic
Adding Text Wrap
Importing Graphics from Various Sources
Copyright
Graphic Formats
Bitmapped Graphics
Object-oriented Graphics
Graphic Formats
.GIF
.JPEG
.BMP
.PICT
Snagging a Web Graphic
Copying a Graphic in Netscape
Saving a Graphic in Netscape
Exploring Clip Art Sites
Editing Graphics
Using the Tools Palette
Using the Selection Rectangle
Using the Lasso Tool
Using the Fill Palette
Changing the Format of a Graphic





Inserting Graphics into an AppleWorks Word Processing Document

Graphics can be inserted into an AppleWorks word processing document in two major ways. One way is as an in-line or anchored graphic and the other is as a graphic or floating object. The major advantage of inserting a graphic in-line is that it moves with the text and retains its place in the document. If you add or delete text, you do not have to reposition the graphic. It stays in place. You can move the graphic by using spaces, tabs, returns, and the alignment features.

The major advantage of inserting clip art as a floating graphic is that you can insert the graphic anywhere on the page you want and “float” it over or under the text. You can wrap the text around it. You can also layer the text with the graphic or use it as a “watermark.” However, when you insert or delete text, the graphic does not move. You must reposition the graphic manually.


Inserting an In-line Graphic

To insert a graphic in-line, click on the Show Tools button and make sure the A tool is selected as shown below. Put the cursor where you want the graphic placed. Insert the graphic in any of the usual ways. (i.e., Scrapbook, Library, or File..Insert)



Exercise 1: Click on your Show Tools button and make sure the A tool is selected as shown above. Open the file, Grappling1 which is on your desktop in a folder called Grappling. Choose Insert from the File menu. Navigate to the Grappling folder and choose the file, Computer.gif. Click on Insert.

Delete the following sentence from the text in the file: “You can also layer the text with the graphic and use it as a ‘watermark.’ “ Note how the graphic moved with the text. Add the same sentence back. Note how the graphic shifted down the page. Click on the graphic to select it. Resize the graphic with the handle. Notice how the text shifts to accommodate the new size. Type two spaces and add the following sentence after the graphic: “The text lines up with the bottom of an in-line graphic.” Note the alignment of the text with the graphic. Save Grappling1.

Table of Contents





Inserting a Floating Graphic

To insert a floating graphic, click on the Show Tools button and make sure the tool is selected as shown below. Insert the graphic in any of the usual ways. (i.e., Scrapbook, Library, or File..Insert) The graphic will be placed somewhere on the page.



Exercise 2: Delete the sentence, “The text lines up with the bottom of an in-line graphic.” Click on your Show Tools button and make sure the tool is selected as shown above. Click on the computer graphic inserted in the previous exercise to select it. Press the Delete key to delete the graphic. Choose Insert from the File menu. Navigate to the Grappling folder and choose the file, Computer.gif. Click on Insert.

Delete the following sentence from the text in the file: “You can also layer the text with the graphic and use the it as a ‘watermark.’ “ Note how the graphic “stayed put.” Add the same sentence back. Notice how the graphic is back in the right spot. Click on the graphic to select it. Resize the graphic with the handles. Click, hold, and drag the graphic from inside the handles. Move the graphic around the page. Notice how the graphic “floats” over the text. Press return after the end of the text and add the following sentence after the graphic: “The graphic floats over all the text.” Save Grappling1.
Table of Contents





Adding Text Wrap

In order to use text wrap, the graphic must have been inserted as a floating graphic. Click on the graphic to select it. Be sure it has four handles. If it doesn’t, you need to delete the graphic and insert it as a floating object. (See above.)


Click on the graphic to select it. Choose Text Wrap from the Options menu. Choose the appropriate options as illustrated below.



Exercise 3: Click on the graphic added in Exercise 2. Experiment with the different options in text wrap as discussed above.


Table of Contents




Importing Graphics from Various Sources

Copyright

Copyright is a complicated, ever-changing issue. It is so easy to snag graphics off the Web and place them in your documents and on your Web pages that a whole new set of questions needs to be asked.

Basically, when using clip art off the Web, assume that the graphics are copyrighted unless there is a clear statement that the pictures are “public domain” and free to use. If the clip art is copyrighted, this means you cannot use it on a local area network, a wide area network or a Web site. Even if the clip art is “free”, you need to check the Web site for terms of use. Sometimes the graphics are free to use if you include a link back to the clip art site.

When using clip art from a CD, be sure to follow the copyright statement in the CD documentation. Do not assume that buying the CD gives you publication rights to the clip art.

The following Web sites will give you more detailed information on copyright:

http://fno.org/jun96/legal.html#Copyright
http://www.lcweb.loc.gov/copyright/
http://www.benedict.com/contents.htm
http://www.agag.com/forum/copyright.shtml

Table of Contents




Graphic Formats

Graphics are stored in many different formats. The formats that you need to be familiar with are: .GIF, .JPEG, .BMP, and .PICT. Graphics stored in these formats fall into two basic categories: bitmapped graphics and object-oriented graphics. The differences in these formats cause the graphics to behave in different ways.

Bitmapped Graphics
Bitmapped graphics are created as a series of individual dots or pixels that are called bits. These bits can contain one of millions of colors with varying resolutions or bit size. This type of graphic is similar to a color photograph. The pixels can be so small that different colors are very hard to distinguish.

To edit a bitmapped image, a pixel-oriented program such as Paint must be used. A pixel-oriented program can be recognized because it has an eraser. The image can be recolored pixel by pixel or resized by percentage. Normally when you bring a bitmapped picture into AppleWorks from an outside source, it will open immediately into Paint as a bitmapped graphic. Bitmapped graphics cannot be “recolored” and for the most part cannot be “resized” in an object-oriented program such as Draw. This is because the object-oriented program is “seeing” the graphic through a window as one complete object and not individual pixels.

Object-Oriented Graphics
Object-oriented or vector graphics are created and stored as individual lines, circles, squares and other shapes. This type of graphic does not have varying resolutions and is usually limited in the number of colors that it contains. An object oriented graphic that is composed of more than one color is actually several objects grouped together. Using an object-oriented program such as Draw, these individual objects can be recolored if the object is ungrouped. An individual pixel, however, cannot be edited, only an entire object. An object or a group of objects may also be resized in an object-oriented program such as Draw.

Table of Contents




Graphic Formats

.GIF
Graphic Interchange Format
This is the most widely used and supported format on the Internet. You can display the image in black, white, gray scale or color. Background can also be made transparent. The one drawback to this format is that you only have a 256 color palette from which to choose. The .GIF image is compressed for quick loading and small storage space. A .GIF image is a bitmapped graphic.

.JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group
This format was primarily developed to compress very large pictures or photographs with continuous-tone images down into a usable size for the web. The higher the compression ratio the lower the quality and the less chance that the stored picture will look like the original uncompressed photograph. This format will allow you to store a photograph or picture with millions of colors as opposed to 256 available in a .GIF. A .JPEG image is a bitmapped graphic.

.BMP Bitmap
This is the standard Windows image format on DOS and Windows-compatible machines. BMP formats store information about the file and therefore cause the file to be larger in size than a .JPEG.

.PICT PICT File or PICT Resource
This is mainly a Macintosh format for graphics and is used as an intermediary file format between applications. This is the file format for graphics stored in the Scrapbook. A .PICT file is an object-oriented graphic.

Table of Contents




Snagging a Web Graphic

There are two ways to obtain a graphic from the Web. One way is to simply copy the graphic and paste it into you document or the Scrapbook. The second way is to save the image for later use.

Copying a Graphic in Netscape (Internet Explorer slightly different)
To copy a graphic from the Web, click and hold the mouse button down on the graphic you want to copy until a menu pops up. Choose Copy this Image (Copy Image in IE) from the menu. This will store the image on the clipboard. Open the AppleWorks or other document in which you wish to place the graphic. Choose the method of graphic insertion - in-line or floating. Paste the graphic accordingly.

Saving a Graphic in Netscape
(Internet Explorer slightly different)
To save a graphic from the Web, click and hold the mouse button down on the graphic you want to copy until a menu pops up. Choose Save This Image as . . . (Download Image to Disk in IE). When the screen below appears, navigate to find where you want the image saved, type in a name for the image or accept the default, and click on save.



Open the AppleWorks document in which you wish to place the graphic. Choose the method of graphic insertion - in-line or floating. Choose Insert from the File menu to place the graphic.

Table of Contents



Exploring Clip Art Sites

The following Web sites provide “free” clip art for educators. Always abide by the “Terms of Use” which may change from site to site.

Barry’s Clip Art http://www.barrysclipart.com/
The best way to use this site is to employ the search feature. Simply type in one or two words that describe the graphic for which you are looking in the Find: box and click GO. The search, depending on the topic, will usually return a large number of images. Many images are in black and white. The terms of use can be found here: http://www.barrysclipart.com/terms.

ClipArt.Com http://www.clipart.com/
The best way to use this site is to employ the search feature. Simply type in one or two words that describe the graphic for which you are looking in the Search ArtToday,
the nets largest clipart site
box and click on GO. The search will return up to twelve images. To see more than this, you must join the site for a fee. The usage terms can be found here: http://www.arttoday.com/Main/company/usage.

PageWorks original animation from Kitty http://www.snowcrest.net/kitty/hpages/index.html
This site has a lot of unusual animated gifs and graphics. The best links are Imageworks from the main menu for animated gifs and Pictureworks from the contents page for still images. Be aware that there is music that plays on every page. You must scroll down the page to find the “button” to turn it off. The usage terms can be found here:
The rules: http://www.snowcrest.net/kitty/hpages/zebra0.html.




CoolText .com http://www.cooltext.com/
You can create customized banners for all your documents or Web pages. You should be aware, however, that if the site is busy, creating the banner could take several minutes. The terms of use can be found here: http://www.cooltext.com/faq.php3#1.2.3


iBand.com http://www.iband.com/
A collection of easily accessible clip art and pictures arranged in categories. The terms of use are found here: http://www.iband.com/use.html.


National Geographic Maps http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas
A fantastic collection of printable maps. Choose any place in the world, then print a map. Terms of use - Maps are for non-commercial use only.


WildlifeLands Image Archive http://www.gironet.nl/home/cdon/home.htm
A great Web site that contains lots of pictures of wild creatures and their habitats. You can use the images as they are on the Website, if you credit them to Eric van Poppel and link the image to http://www.wildlifelands.com.



Exercise 4:
Open the document, Grappling1, located in the Grappling folder on the desk top. Access this Web site: http://www.top100-websites.com/clipart/index.html.

Part 1: Choose a graphic off the Web, copy it, and paste it into the Grappling1 document as an in-line graphic. Select the graphic you just pasted and delete it.

Part 2: Choose an appropriate graphic from the same Web site. Save it in the Grappling folder as Mygraphic. Insert Mygraphic into the Graphic1 document as an in-line graphic.

Exercise 5: Using the document above, Grappling1, insert Mygraphic as a floating object and apply text wrap.

Table of Contents




Editing Graphics

Most graphics retrieved from the Web, scanned into your computer or taken with a digital camera must be edited in a pixel-oriented program such as Paint. Here is a basic review of the Paint tools and options.

Using the Tools Palette



When opening AppleWorks Paint, it defaults to the Pencil tool. This tool is very helpful for changing color pixel by pixel or for smoothing out edges. The Text tool can be used to add text to the graphic.


If you select the Text tool, the mouse will turn into an “I” beam. You can then click, hold and drag to open a text box. Here you will be able to type text. However, when you click away from the text box, your text becomes permanent. No changes can be made. Check the typing BEFORE you deselect the text area. For this reason, it is usually easier to add text in Draw.


When working with a graphic in Paint, a graphic must be selected to copy, duplicate or move it. The three most common tools used to do this are listed below. Depending on the graphic’s shape and size, one tool may be better than another.

Table of Contents




Using the Selection Rectangle
The Selection Rectangle is used to select a rectangular area on the Paint surface. To use it, click on the tool. Then position the pointer outside one corner of the image. Click, hold and drag the pointer in a diagonal over the image. When you release the mouse button, the image and the surrounding white space will be selected. To select the entire Paint surface, double-click on the Selection Rectangle.

To quickly select the image with little or no white space do the following: Hold the CONTROL key and APPLE key down while dragging the Selection Rectangle around the image.

To quickly select all images on the Paint surface with little or no white space do the following: Hold the CONTROL key and the APPLE key down while double clicking on the Selection Rectangle tool.

Exercise 6: Open the document Graphic3, located in the Grappling folder on the desk top. Click on the Selection Rectangle. Place the cross hair outside one corner of the image. Click hold and drag diagonally to the opposite corner and release. Notice where the dotted lines are formed. Click on the arrow to deselect the image. Double-click on the Selection Rectangle tool and notice that the entire palette is selected.
Exercise 7: Using the same document, click on the arrow to deselect the image. Hold down the OPTION and APPLE keys together and double-click on the Selection Rectangle tool. Notice that only the image with little or no white space is selected.

Exercise 8: Open the document Graphic4, located in the Grappling folder on the desk top. Click on the Selection Rectangle tool. There are two images on the palette. using the correct method outlined above, select all images on the Paint surface with little or no white space.

Table of Contents



Using the Lasso Tool
The Lasso tool is used to select irregular shapes. It will select just the image without the surrounding white space. This tool is used in conjunction with the Scrapbook to eliminate the “dreaded white box” around a graphic.

To use the Lasso, click on the tool. Draw a loop around the object to select it. When the two ends meet or cross, release the mouse button. The object will have shimmering edges which indicates it is selected. To quickly select all the objects on the Paint canvas, double-click on the Lasso tool.

Exercise 9: Open the document Graphic3, located in the Grappling folder on the desk top. Click on the Lasso tool and place the tip of the lasso off to one side of the image. Now draw a large circle or “lasso” around the graphic. Notice when the edges are shimmering.
Exercise 10: Using the same document, click on the arrow and deselect the image. This time double click on the Lasso tool and your entire image will be selected without white space.

Exercise 11: Open the document Graphic4, located in the Grappling folder on the desk top. Select the Lasso tool. This time there are two images on the palette. Select the image on the right using the “lasso” method.

Table of Contents




Using the Fill Palette


An object can be filled with a color, pattern, texture, or gradient. Click and hold the color, pattern, texture, or gradient icon to open the fill selections. When any tool is used to draw an image, the image will have the selected fill.

The color, pattern, texture, or gradient of an image can be changed by using the Fill Bucket to replace a chosen fill. Choose the appropriate color, pattern, texture, or gradient. Hold the tip of the paint drip of the Fill Bucket over the section to be changed and click the mouse.

To edit an image pixel by pixel, select the Pencil tool, , and enlarge the image view with the Zoom-in control, . Select the appropriate color, pattern, etc. from the Fill palette. Click on each pixel you wish to change.

Exercise 12: Open the document Graphic6, located in the Grappling folder on the desk top. Use the Fill Bucket and the Pencil tool to color this image.

Table of Contents




Changing the Format of a Graphic

When moving an image from a Paint (Bitmap) program to a Draw (vector) program or other application, the format of the image needs to be converted so that it can be resized and not have a “white box.” The best way to make this conversion is through the Scrapbook. Paste or insert the image into a Paint document. Use the Lasso tool or the Selection Rectangle to select the image with no white space. Select Copy from the Edit menu. Select Scrapbook from the Apple menu to open the Scrapbook. Select Paste from the Edit menu to paste the graphic into the Scrapbook. The Scrapbook automatically converts the graphic into PICT format. This graphic can now be copied from the Scrapbook and pasted into Draw or Word Processing and resized. Most of the time, any “white box” will be eliminated. Any other type of editing on this graphic must be completed in the Paint application. The Scrapbook has simply converted a pixel-oriented image to a single object-oriented picture.



Exercise 13:
Open the document Graphic4, located in the Grappling folder on the desk top. Choose one of the selection tools and select the teddy bear without any extra white space. From the Edit menu, select Copy. Open a new Draw document. From the Edit menu, choose Paste. Click on the image to get the handle bars and resize the image. Notice what happens.This time paste the image into the Scrapbook. Copy the same image from the Scrapbook and paste into the Draw document. Click on the image to get the handle bars and resize it. Notice what happens.

Exercise 14: Find an image on the Internet. Place it in a Word Processing document so that it does not have extra white space and can be resized.


Table of Contents